I am an old farm boy, so that is what I did. I knew a few landmarks, and kept myself aware with directions I was going. There is an app I have on my phone that work as a compass. Yet, when in a very large city, the GPS works to keep the walking to a minimum. There is value in using all these things together.
What is funny though, is travelers are for the most part dependent on Apps, Reviews, Reservations, they do not even try to make these decisions using their own mind, they are very needy, therefore need to stay where other travelers are going. The are not going to go to Africa, unless they are on a tour group, or volunteering. They are not independent.