Oman - Tips

Oman Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs
June 2007

Background Note: Oman

A mosque in Muscat, Oman, June 9,
2007. [© AP Images]

Flag of Oman is three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal
width with a broad, vertical, red band on hoist side; the national emblem in
white is centered near top of vertical band.

PROFILE

OFFICIAL NAME:
Sultanate of Oman

Geography
Area: About 309,500 sq. km. (approximately the size of the State of New
Mexico). It is bordered on the north by the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.), on
the northwest by Saudi Arabia, and on the southwest by the Republic of Yemen.
The Omani coastline stretches 3,165 km.
Cities: Capital--Muscat. Other cities--Salalah, Nizwa, Sohar, Sur.
Terrain: Mountains, plains, and arid plateau.
Climate: Hot and humid along the coast; hot and dry in the interior; summer
monsoon in the far south.

People
Nationality: Noun--Oman. Adjective--Omani(s).
Population (2006 est.): 3.20 million (includes 577,000 non-nationals).
Annual growth rate (2006 est.): 3.2%.
Ethnic groups: Arab, Baluchi, East African (Zanzabari), South Asian (Indian,
Pakistani, Bangladeshi).
Religions: Ibadhi; Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu, Christian.
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Swahili, Hindi and
Indian dialects.
Education: Literacy--approx. 80% (total population).
Health (2006 est.): Infant mortality rate--18.28 deaths/1,000 live births.
Life expectancy--73.62 years.
Work force: 920,000 total; Agriculture and fishing--approx. 50%.

Government
Type: Monarchy.
Constitution: None. On November 6, 1996, Sultan Qaboos issued a royal decree
promulgating the Basic Statute which clarifies the royal succession, provides
for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies
doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral parliament, and
guarantees basic rights and responsibilities for Omani citizens.
Branches: Executive--Sultan. Legislative--Majlis Oman (bicameral: State
Council and Consultative Council). Judicial--Civil courts are divided into
four departments: Criminal courts handle cases under the penal code; Shari'a
(Islamic law) courts oversee personal status and family law issues;
Commercial courts adjudicate business and commercial matters; Labor courts
oversee labor and employment cases.
Political parties: None.
Suffrage: Universal adult.
Administrative subdivisions: Eight administrative regions--Muscat
Governorate, Dhofar Governorate, Musandam Governorate, Al-Buraimi
Governorate, Al Batinah, Al Dhahirah, Al Dakhliya, Al Shariqiya, Al Wusta.
There are 61 districts (wilayats).

Economy
GDP (2006 est.): $39.50 billion.
Per capita GDP (2006 est.): $13,845.
Real GDP growth rate (2006 est.): 6.6%.
Natural resources: Oil, natural gas, copper, marble, limestone, gypsum,
chromium.
Agriculture and fisheries: (2.1% of GDP). Products--dates, bananas, mangoes,
alfalfa, other fruits and vegetables. Fisheries--kingfish, tuna, other fish,
shrimp, lobster, abalone.
Industry: Types--crude petroleum (not including gas liquids) about 750,000
barrels per day; construction, petroleum refinery, copper mines and smelter,
cement and various light industries.
Trade (2006 est.): Exports--$18.69 billion. Major markets--Japan (22.1%),
China (15.2%), Thailand (12.6%), South Korea (19.9%), U.A.E. (9.4%).
Imports--$8.83 billion: machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured
goods, food, livestock, lubricants. Major suppliers--U.A.E. 27.6%, Japan
16.7%, U.K. 7.4%, U.S. 6.9%, Germany 5%.

PEOPLE
About 55% of the population lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain
northwest of the capital; about 215,000 live in the Dhofar (southern) region,
and about 30,000 live in the remote Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of
Hormuz. Some 660,000 expatriates live in Oman, most of whom are guest workers
from South Asia, Egypt, Jordan, and the Philippines.

Since 1970, the government has given high priority to education in order to
develop a domestic work force, which the government considers a vital factor
in the country's economic and social progress. In 1986, Oman's first
university, Sultan Qaboos University, opened. It has continued to expand,
recently adding a law college, and remains the country's only major public
university. In total, there are about 20 public post-secondary education
institutions in Oman, including technical colleges, teacher training
colleges, and health institutes. More than 300 full and partial scholarships
are awarded each year for study abroad.

There are three private universities and 20 private post-secondary education
institutions in Oman, including a banking college, a fire and safety college,
a dentistry college, and business and management colleges. Most of these
public and private post-secondary education institutions offer four-year
degrees, while the remainder provide two-year post-secondary diplomas. Since
1999, the government has embarked on reforms in higher education designed to
meet the needs of a growing population. Approximately 40% of Omani high
school graduates pursue some type of post-secondary education.

HISTORY
Oman adopted Islam in the seventh century A.D., during the lifetime of the
Prophet Muhammad. Ibadhism, a form of Islam distinct from Shiaism and the
"Orthodox" schools of Sunnism, became the dominant religious sect in Oman by
the eighth century A.D. Oman is the only country in the Islamic world with a
majority Ibadhi population. Ibadhism is known for its "moderate
conservatism." One distinguishing feature of Ibadhism is the choice of ruler
by communal consensus and consent.

Contact with Europe was established in 1508, when the Portuguese conquered
parts of Oman's coastal region. Portugal's influence predominated for more
than a century. Fortifications built during the Portuguese occupation can
still be seen at Muscat.

Except for a period when Persia conquered parts of Oman, Oman has been an
independent nation. After the Portuguese were expelled in 1650 and while
resisting Persian attempts to establish hegemony, the Sultan of Oman extended
his conquests to Zanzibar, other parts of the eastern coast of Africa, and
portions of the southern Arabian Peninsula. During this period, political
leadership shifted from the Ibadhi imams, who were elected religious leaders,
to hereditary sultans who established their capital in Muscat. The Muscat
rulers established trading posts on the Persian coast and also exercised a
measure of control over the Makran coast (now Pakistan). By the early 19th
century, Oman was the most powerful state in Arabia and had a major presence
on the East African coast.

Oman was the object of Franco-British rivalry throughout the 18th century.
During the 19th century, Oman and the United Kingdom concluded several
treaties of friendship and commerce. In 1908, the British entered into an
agreement of friendship. Their traditional association was confirmed in 1951
through a new treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation by which the
United Kingdom recognized the Sultanate of Oman as a fully independent state.

When Sultan Sa'id bin Sultan Al-Busaid died in 1856, his sons quarreled over
his succession. As a result of this struggle, the Omani empire--through the
mediation of the British Government under the "Canning Award"--was divided in
1861 into two separate principalities--Zanzibar, with its East African
dependencies, and Muscat and Oman. Zanzibar paid an annual subsidy to Muscat
and Oman until its independence in early 1964.

During the late 19th and early to mid-20th centuries, the sultan in Muscat
faced a rebellion by members of the Ibadhi sect residing in the interior of
Oman, centered around the town of Nizwa, who wanted to be ruled exclusively
by their religious leader, the Imam of Oman. This conflict was resolved
temporarily by the Treaty of Seeb in 1920, which granted the imam autonomous
rule in the interior, while recognizing the sovereignty of the sultan
elsewhere.

Following the discovery of oil in the interior, the conflict flared up again
in 1954, when the new imam led a sporadic 5-year rebellion against the
sultan's efforts to extend government control into the interior. The
insurgents were defeated in 1959 with British help. The sultan then
terminated the Treaty of Seeb and eliminated the office of the imam. In the
early 1960s, the imam, exiled to Saudi Arabia, obtained support from his
hosts and other Arab governments, but this support ended in the 1980s.

In 1964, a separatist revolt began in Dhofar Province. Aided by communist and
leftist governments such as the former South Yemen (People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen), the rebels formed the Dhofar Liberation Front, which
later merged with the Marxist-dominated Popular Front for the Liberation of
Oman and the Arab Gulf (PFLOAG). The PFLOAG's declared intention was to
overthrow all traditional Arab Gulf regimes. In mid-1974, PFLOAG shortened
its name to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO) and embarked
on a political rather than a military approach to gain power in the other
Gulf states, while continuing the guerrilla war in Dhofar.

With the help of British advisors, Sultan Qaboos bin Sa'id assumed power on
July 23, 1970, in a palace coup directed against his father, Sa'id bin
Taymur, who later died in exile in London. The new sultan was confronted with
insurgency in a country plagued by endemic disease, illiteracy, and poverty.
One of the new sultan's first measures was to abolish many of his father's
harsh restrictions, which had caused thousands of Omanis to leave the
country, and to offer amnesty to opponents of the previous regime, many of
whom returned to Oman. He also established a modern government structure and
launched a major development program to upgrade educational and health
facilities, build a modern infrastructure, and develop the country's natural
resources.

In an effort to end the Dhofar insurgency, Sultan Qaboos expanded and
re-equipped the armed forces and granted amnesty to all surrendered rebels
while vigorously prosecuting the war in Dhofar. He obtained direct military
support from the U.K., Iran, and Jordan. By early 1975, the guerrillas were
confined to a 50-square kilometer (20-sq. mi.) area near the Yemen border and
shortly thereafter were defeated. As the war drew to a close, civil action
programs were given priority throughout Dhofar and helped win the allegiance
of the people. The PFLO threat diminished further with the establishment of
diplomatic relations in October 1983 between South Yemen and Oman, and South
Yemen subsequently lessened propaganda and subversive activities against
Oman. In late-1987, Oman opened an embassy in Aden, South Yemen, and
appointed its first resident ambassador to the country.

Since his accession in 1970, Sultan Qaboos has balanced tribal, regional, and
ethnic interests in composing the national administration. The Council of
Ministers, which functions as a cabinet, consists of 30 ministers (but only
28 ministries), all directly appointed by Qaboos. The bicameral Majlis Oman's
mandate is to review legislation pertaining to economic development and
social services prior to its becoming law. The elected Majlis al-Shura
(Consultative Council) may request ministers to appear before it. In early
2003, Sultan Qaboos declared universal suffrage for the October 2003 Majlis
al-Shura elections. Two women were elected to sit with 81 male colleagues in
those elections, which were observed to be free and fair. Roughly 194,000
Omani men and women, or 74% of registered voters, participated in the
elections. Since 2003, Sultan Qaboos has also expanded the Majlis al-Dawla,
or State Council, to 59 members from 53, including nine women. The State
Council acts as the upper chamber in Oman's bicameral representative body.

In November 1996, Sultan Qaboos presented his people with the "Basic Statute
of the State," Oman's first written "constitution." It guarantees various
rights within the framework of Shariah and customary law. It partially
resuscitated long dormant conflict-of-interest measures by banning cabinet
ministers from being officers of public shareholding firms. Perhaps most
importantly, the Basic Statute provides rules for the royal succession.

The northern tip of Oman, called the Musandam Peninsula, is strategically
located on the Strait of Hormuz, the entrance to the Gulf, 35 miles directly
opposite Iran. Oman is concerned with regional stability and security, given
tensions in the region, the proximity of Iran and Iraq, and the potential
threat of political Islam. Oman maintained its diplomatic relations with Iraq
throughout the Gulf War while supporting the UN allies by sending a
contingent of troops to join coalition forces and by opening up to
prepositioning of weapons and supplies. In addition, since 1980 Oman and the
U.S. have been parties to a military cooperation agreement, which was revised
and renewed in 2000. Oman also has long been an active participant in efforts
to achieve Middle East peace.

Following the terrorist attacks on the United States in September 2001, the
Omani Government at all levels pledged and provided impressive support to the
U.S.-led coalition against terrorism. Oman is a signatory of most
UN-sponsored anti-terrorism treaties.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
Sultan Qaboos bin Sa'id rules with the aid of his ministers. His dynasty, the
Al Sa'id, was founded about 250 years ago by Imam Ahmed bin Sa'id Al Bu Said.
Sultan Qaboos is a direct descendant of the 19th century ruler, Sa'id bin
Sultan, who first opened relations with the United States in 1833. The
Sultanate has neither political parties nor legislature, although the
bicameral representative bodies provide the government with advice.

Oman's judicial system traditionally has been based on the Shari'a--the
Quranic laws and the oral teachings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Traditionally, Shari'a courts fell under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of
Justice, Awqaf, and Islamic Affairs (since divided into the Ministry of
Justice and the Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs). Oman's first
criminal code was not enacted until 1974.

In 1999, royal decrees placed the entire court system under the financial
supervision of the Ministry of Justice, though the 1996 Basic Law ensures the
independence of the judiciary. An independent Office of the Public Prosecutor
also has been created (formerly a part of the Royal Oman Police), as has a
supreme court. Regional court complexes are envisioned to house the various
courts, including the courts of first instance for criminal cases and Shariah
cases (family law and inheritance).

The country is divided into 61 administrative districts (wilayats), presided
over by appointed executives (walis) responsible for settling local disputes,
collecting taxes, and maintaining peace. Most wilayats are small in area, but
can vary considerably in population. The 61 wilayats are divided into eight
regions. Four of those regions (Muscat, Dhofar, Musandam, and Buraimi) have
been accorded a special status as governorates. The governors of those four
regions are appointed directly by the Sultan and hold Minister of State or
Under Secretary rank. Walis, however, are appointed by the Minister of
Interior.

In November 1991, Sultan Qaboos established the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative
Council), which replaced the 10-year-old State Consultative Council, in an
effort to systematize and broaden public participation in government.
Representatives were chosen in the following manner: Local caucuses in each
of the 59 districts sent forward the names of three nominees, whose
credentials were reviewed by a cabinet committee. These names were then
forwarded to the Sultan, who made the final selection. Since then, reforms
have permitted Omanis to freely run for office in contested elections
featuring universal adult suffrage. The Consultative Council serves as a
conduit of information between the people and the government ministries. It
is empowered to review drafts of and provide recommendations on economic and
social legislation prepared by service ministries, such as communications and
housing, and to approve state financial plans. Service ministers also may be
summoned before the Majlis to respond to representatives' questions. It has
no authority in the areas of foreign affairs, defense, security, and finance.

Although Oman enjoys a high degree of internal stability, regional tensions
in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf war, the Iran-Iraq war, and Operations
Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom continue to necessitate large defense
expenditures. In 2006, Oman spent roughly $3.84 billion for defense and
national security--over 33% of its public expenditures. Oman maintains a
small but professional and effective military, supplied mainly with British
equipment in addition to items from the United States, France, and other
countries. British officers, on loan or on contract to the Sultanate, help
staff the armed forces, although a program of "Omanization" has steadily
increased the proportion of Omani officers over the past several years.

After North and South Yemen merged in May 1990, Oman settled its border
disputes with the new Republic of Yemen on October 1, 1992. The two neighbors
have cooperative bilateral relations. Oman's borders with all neighbors are
demarcated, including a 2002 demarcation of the Oman-U.A.E. border that was
ratified in 2003.

Principal Government Officials
Sultan, Prime Minister, and Minister of Defense, Foreign Affairs, and
Finance--Qaboos bin Sa'id Al Said
Minister of Royal Office Affairs--Ali bin Majid al-Ma'amari
Deputy Prime Minister for Cabinet Affairs--Sayyid Fahad bin Mahmud al-Said
Minister Responsible for Foreign Affairs--Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah
Minister of National Economy--Ahmad bin Abd al-Nabi Makki
Minister Responsible for Defense Affairs--Badr bin Saud bin Harib al-Busaidi
Inspector General of Police and Customs--Major General Malik bin Sulaiman
al-Ma'mari

Ambassador to the United States--Hunaina Sultan al-Mughairy
Permanent Representative to the UN--Fuad bin Mubarak al-Hinai

Oman maintains an embassy in the United States at 2535 Belmont Rd. NW,
Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202/387-1980)

ECONOMY
When Oman declined as an entrepot for arms and slaves in the mid-19th
century, much of its former prosperity was lost, and the economy turned
almost exclusively to agriculture, camel and goat herding, fishing, and
traditional handicrafts. Today, oil and gas fuel the economy, and revenues
from petroleum products have enabled Oman's dramatic development over the
past 36 years.

Oil was first discovered in the interior near Fahud in the western desert in
1964. Petroleum Development (Oman) Ltd. (PDO) began production in August
1967. The Omani Government owns 60% of PDO, and foreign interests own 40%
(Royal Dutch Shell owns 34%; the remaining 6% is owned by Compagnie Francaise
des Petroles [Total] and Partex). In 1976, Oman's oil production rose to
366,000 barrels per day (b/d) but declined gradually to about 285,000 b/d in
late 1980 due to the depletion of recoverable reserves. From 1981 to 1986,
Oman compensated for declining oil prices by increasing production levels to
600,000 b/d. With the collapse of oil prices in 1986, however, revenues
dropped dramatically. Production was cut back temporarily in coordination
with the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)--of which Oman
is not a member--and production levels again reached 600,000 b/d by mid-1987,
which helped increase revenues. By 2000, production had climbed to more than
900,000 b/d; however, it declined to roughly 750,000 b/d for 2006.

Natural gas reserves, which will increasingly provide the fuel for industrial
projects in Sohar and power generation and desalination plants throughout the
Sultanate, stand at 24 trillion cubic feet. A liquefied natural gas (LNG)
processing plant located in Sur was opened in 2000, with production capacity
of 6.6 million tons per year (tons/yr), as well as unsubstantial gas liquids,
including condensates. The completion of the plant's expansion in December
2005 has increased capacity to 10.3 million tons/yr.

Oman does not have the immense oil resources of some of its neighbors. Total
proven reserves are about 4.8 billion barrels. Oman's complex geology makes
exploration and production an expensive challenge. Recent improvements in
technology, however, have enhanced recovery.

Agriculture and fishing are the traditional way of life in Oman. Dates, grown
extensively in the Batinah coastal plain and the highlands, make up most of
the country's agricultural exports. Coconut palms, wheat, and bananas also
are grown, and cattle are raised in Dhofar. Other areas grow cereals and
forage crops. Poultry production is steadily rising. Fish and shellfish
exports totaled $104.7 million in 2006.

The government is undertaking many development projects to modernize the
economy, improve the standard of living, and become a more active player in
the global marketplace. Oman became a member of the World Trade Organization
in October 2000, and continues to amend its financial and commercial
practices to conform to international standards. Oman signed a Free Trade
Agreement with the United States in January 2006, and continues to pursue,
through the Gulf Cooperation Council, free trade agreements with a number of
other key trading partners, including the EU and India.

Increases in agriculture and especially fish production are believed possible
with the application of modern technology. The Muscat capital area has both
an international airport at Seeb and a deepwater port at Mina Qaboos. The
large-scale modern container port at Salalah, capital of the Dhofar
Governorate, continues to operate at near-capacity levels. The government in
early 2004 approved a project worth over $250 million to add two berths and
extend the breakwater at the port. Port expansion is underway at Mina Qaboos,
and a large industrial and container port is under construction in Sohar. A
national road network includes a $400 million highway linking the northern
and southern regions. The government will also expand passenger and cargo
capacity at its main international airports at Seeb (Muscat) and Salalah, and
will construct new airports at Sohar, Ras al-Hadd, and Duqm. In an effort to
diversify the economy, in the early 1980s, the government built a
$200-million copper mining and refining plant at Sohar. Other large
industrial projects underway or being considered include an 80,000 b/d oil
refinery, a large petrochemical complex, fertilizer and methanol plants, an
aluminum smelter, and two cement factories. Industrial zones at Rusayl,
Sohar, and several other locations showcase the country's modest light
industries. Marble, limestone, and gypsum may prove commercially viable in
the future.

The Omani Government embarked on its seventh 5-year plan in 2006. In its
efforts to reduce its dependence on oil and expatriate labor, the government
projects significant increases in spending on industrial and tourism-related
projects to foster income diversification, job creation for Omanis in the
private sector, and development of Oman's interior. Government programs offer
soft loans and propose the building of new industrial estates in population
centers outside the capital area. The government is giving greater emphasis
to "Omanization" of the labor force, particularly in banking, hotels, and
municipally sponsored shops benefiting from government subsidies. Currently,
efforts are underway to liberalize investment opportunities in order to
attract foreign capital.

Some of the largest budgetary outlays are in the areas of health services and
basic education. The number of schools, hospitals, and clinics has risen
exponentially since the accession of Sultan Qaboos in 1970.

U.S. firms face a small and highly competitive market dominated by trade with
Japan and Britain and re-exports from the United Arab Emirates. The sale of
U.S. products also is hampered by higher transportation costs and the lack of
familiarity with Oman on the part of U.S. exporters. However, the traditional
U.S. market in Oman, oil field supplies and services, should grow as the
country's major oil producer continues a major expansion of fields and wells.
Major new U.S. investments in oil production, industry, and tourism projects
in 2005 totaled several billion dollars. Moreover, negotiations on the
U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (FTA) were successfully concluded in October
2005; the FTA was ratified by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Bush
in 2006 and is currently awaiting implementation. Once implemented, the FTA
should provide further impetus to bilateral trade and investment.

FOREIGN RELATIONS
When Sultan Qaboos assumed power in 1970, Oman had limited contacts with the
outside world, including neighboring Arab states. Only two countries, the
United Kingdom and India, maintained a diplomatic presence in the country. A
special treaty relationship permitted the United Kingdom close involvement in
Oman's civil and military affairs. Ties with the United Kingdom have remained
very close under Sultan Qaboos.

Since 1970, Oman has pursued a moderate foreign policy and expanded its
diplomatic relations dramatically. It supported the 1979 Camp David accords
and was one of three Arab League states, along with Somalia and Sudan, which
did not break relations with Egypt after the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli
Peace Treaty in 1979. During the Iran-Iraq war, Oman maintained diplomatic
relations with both sides while strongly backing UN Security Council
resolutions calling for an end to the war. Oman has developed close ties to
its neighbors; it joined the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council when it was
established in 1981.

Oman has traditionally supported Middle East peace initiatives, as it did
those in 1983. In April 1994, Oman hosted the plenary meeting of the Water
Working Group of the peace process, the first Gulf state to do so. From
1996-2000, Oman and Israel exchanged trade offices. Oman closed the Israeli
Trade Office in October 2000 in the wake of public demonstrations against
Israel at the start of the second intifada.

During the Cold War period, Oman avoided relations with communist countries
because of the communist support for the insurgency in Dhofar. In recent
years, Oman has undertaken diplomatic initiatives in the Central Asian
republics, particularly in Kazakhstan, where it is involved in a joint oil
pipeline project. In addition, Oman maintains good relations with Iran, and
the two countries regularly exchange delegations. Oman is an active member in
international and regional organizations, notably the Arab League and the
GCC.

U.S.-OMANI RELATIONS
The United States has maintained relations with the Sultanate since the early
years of American independence. A treaty of friendship and navigation, one of
the first agreements of its kind with an Arab state, was concluded between
the United States and Muscat in 1833. This treaty was replaced by the Treaty
of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights signed at Salalah on
December 20, 1958.

A U.S. consulate was maintained in Muscat from 1880 until 1915. Thereafter,
U.S. interests in Oman were handled by U.S. diplomats resident in other
countries. In 1972, the U.S. ambassador in Kuwait was accredited also as the
first U.S. ambassador to Oman, and the U.S. embassy, headed by a resident
charge d'affaires, was opened. The first resident U.S. ambassador took up his
post in July 1974. The Oman embassy was opened in Washington, DC, in 1973.

U.S.-Omani relations were deepened in 1980 by the conclusion of two important
agreements. One provided access to Omani military facilities by U.S. forces
under agreed-upon conditions. The other agreement established a Joint
Commission for Economic and Technical Cooperation, located in Muscat, to
provide U.S. economic assistance to Oman. The Joint Commission continued in
existence until the mid-1990s. A Peace Corps program, which assisted Oman
mainly in the fields of health and education, was initiated in 1973 and
phased out in 1983. A team from the Federal Aviation Administration worked
with Oman's Civil Aviation Department on a reimbursable basis but was phased
out in 1992.

In March 2005, the U.S. and Oman launched negotiations on a Free Trade
Agreement that were successfully concluded in October 2005. The FTA was
signed on January 19, 2006, and is pending implementation.

In 1974 and April 1983, Sultan Qaboos made state visits to the United States.
Vice President George H. Bush visited Oman in 1984 and 1986, and President
Clinton visited briefly in March 2000. Vice President Cheney visited Oman in
2002, 2005, and 2006.

Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--Gary A. Grappo
Deputy Chief of Mission--Alfred F. Fonteneau
Chief, Political/Economic Section--Eric Carlson
Economic/Commercial Officer--Brian Grimm
Public Affairs Officer--Robert Arbuckle
Consular Chief--Bryce Isham

Please visit the Embassy's Internet website at http://oman.usembassy.gov for
more information.

The international mailing address of the U.S. Embassy in Oman is:
P.O. Box 202, Postal Code No. 115, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

The APO address is:
American Embassy, Muscat
Unit 73000, (General)
APO AE 09890
Tel: (011) (968) 24-698-989, 24-699-094. FAX: (011) (968) 24-696-928.

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Further Electronic Information
Department of State Web Site. Available on the Internet at http://
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