|Cuzco, or Cusco - Machu Pichu History and facts|
Quote from: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Compact Disc ROM (CD ROM)
Cuzco or Cusco, city in southern Peru, capital of Cuzco Department, in the valley of the Huatanay River, about 3415 m (about 11,210 ft) above sea level. The principal industries of the city are tanning, brewing, sugar refining, chocolate production, and the manufacture of cotton goods. Cuzco is the seat of a bishopric and the National University of San Antonio Abad (1962). The city contains many remains of Inca times, including the famous Inca temple of the sun; parts of the Inca wall that once surrounded the city; and numerous doorways, arches, and building walls. Many of the present-day houses, usually of adobe with red tile roofs, have remains of Inca stonework for their foundations. Among buildings dating from the Spanish occupation are the Renaissance cathedral, built at the beginning of the 17th century, and the prefecture, formerly the palace of the Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro. Although much of the city was destroyed by an earthquake in 1950, the historic sites have been restored. Population (1993) 257,751.
Machu Picchu, pre-Columbian Inca stronghold in the Andes, about 80 km (about 50 mi) northwest of Cuzco, Peru. Located at a high altitude on a ridge between two peaks, about 600 m (about 1950 ft) above the Urubamba River, the ruined city covers about 13 sq km (about 5 sq mi) of terraces built around a central plaza and linked by numerous stairways. The majority of buildings are one-room stone houses (now roofless), arranged around internal courts; some larger structures were evidently used for religious purposes. All are distinguished by engineering skill and fine craftsmanship. The city was discovered in 1911 by the American explorer Hiram Bingham; it is not mentioned in the writings of the Spanish conquerors of Peru, and the time of its occupancy is uncertain. Bingham believed that Machu Picchu might have been the last refuge of Incas from Cuzco fleeing the Spanish invaders, but nothing is actually known of its history.
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