Cleaning Notes - How to clean, sterilize, sanitize?


Cleaning Notes - How to clean, sterilize, sanitize?

These notes are for travelers that wish to learn what will clean toilets, kitchens, and other living quarters to a high level. Especially in situations where the tap water is maybe not filtered or drinkable, and there is not hot water.


  1. Stainless Steel is suppose or maybe 90 percent wipe able bacteria free.
  2. There are cleaning pad made for surgeons or surgery that is used to clean the hands sterile.
  3. Alcohol is available in all countries, some made of wood and other made of sugar.
  4. Chlorine is considered normal.

I would say that the common or best cleaners are would be made with the use of Iodine, Ammonia, Chlorine, Bleaches. I am not sure or understand the uses of Hydrogen Peroxide or Salt as cleaning agents, but they are possibilities. As a rule of thumb I would say if you are or feel it unsafe to put undiluted on your skin it is probably a stringent or effective toilet cleaner.

DANGER - WARNING - Chlorine Clorox and Ammonia is a dangerous combination. Do NOT use together.

Most Pharmacies will sell Iodine.
Most groceries or markets will sell Ammonia and Chlorine. Do not use together or carry together. Buy one of the other, but not both..
Powdered laundry soap bleach would be good to carry.

Notes: Clothes that are NOT completely dried may not be sanitary.


  1. Boil water to prepare cleaning water.
  2. Mix in Ammonia or Chlorine.
  3. Use to clean.

1 From Encyclopedia Britannica:

Antiseptics and germicides.

The term antiseptic refers to agents applied to the living tissues of humans, other animals, and plants in order to destroy (bactericidal) or inhibit the growth (bacteriostatic) of infectious microorganisms. Antiseptics are used in medical practice to prevent or combat bacterial infections of superficial tissues and to sterilize instruments and infected material. A distinction must be made between antiseptics and chemotherapeutic agents, such as antibiotics and sulfonamides, which are administered by mouth or by injection for the treatment of internal or generalized infections but may also be applied locally in the treatment or prevention of superficial infections. (See antibiotic.)

Many chemical compounds can kill bacteria, but many of them also exhibit properties that limit or prohibit their use. Most antiseptics are general protoplasmic poisons and if used in sufficient concentration are harmful to the body's cells and tissues as well as to bacteria. Thus an antiseptic is most valuable in the disinfection of contaminated wounds or skin surfaces when there is a wide margin between its bactericidal and toxic concentrations. When, however, an antiseptic is to be used to disinfect contaminated instruments or other inanimate objects, its toxic properties are not important, and many compounds (called disinfectants) may be used that cannot be applied to living tissues. The term disinfectant thus refers to substances that are used to destroy microorganisms on inanimate surfaces—e.g., surgical instruments, floors, and walls (see disinfectant). Antiseptics, disinfectants, and antibiotics are all germicides—i.e., they are all substances that kill microorganisms.

The efficiency of an antiseptic must be measured in relation to three main factors: concentration, time, and temperature. It is desirable to know the minimum concentration at which an antiseptic will be effective. Some antiseptics such as phenol lose their activity sharply beyond a certain dilution, whereas mercurial preparations still inhibit bacterial growth at very high dilutions. The time that an antiseptic takes to act depends to some extent on its concentration, but the speed at which different antiseptics kill bacteria varies considerably; thus the halogens (e.g., iodine and chlorine salts) act quickly, while mercurials, compounds of heavy metals, and dyes act slowly. Most antiseptics act more quickly under increased temperatures; the activity of coal-tar derivatives, for instance, is doubled by a rise in temperature from that of a cool room to body heat. Many antiseptics destroy certain types of microorganisms and not others. Many others will kill bacteria but not their spores, which are walled, usually dormant, reproductive bodies.

The Table gives the major families of antiseptics. Alcohols are among the most widely used antiseptics, especially ethyl and isopropyl alcohol, which are commonly used in a 70-percent concentration with water. They are also widely used in combination with other antiseptic agents. The phenols contain a large number of common antiseptics and disinfectants, among them phenol (carbolic acid) and creosote, while such bisphenols as hexyl resorcinol and hexachlorophene are widely used as antiseptic agents in soaps. Chlorine and iodine are both extremely effective agents and can be used in high dilution. Chlorine is widely used in the disinfection of drinking-water supplies, and among its derivatives, the hypochlorite solutions (e.g., Dakin's solution) are used in surgical practice. Iodine is an effective disinfectant of wounds, particularly when used in an alcohol solution. The salts of most metals are generally too toxic to use on living tissues, butcomplex organic mercury salts (e.g., mercurochrome, merthiolate) in alcohol solution are highly bacteriostatic and make useful wound disinfectants. The quaternary ammonium compounds are more widely used as disinfectants than as antiseptics. Certain acridine dyes are used as antiseptics, as are some aromatic, or essential, oils. Most acids and alkalis are either too caustic to tissues or are relatively inefficient bactericides.


Sterilization, which is any process, physical or chemical, that destroys all forms of life, is used especially to destroy microorganisms, spores, and viruses. Precisely defined, sterilization is the complete destruction of all microorganisms by a suitable chemical agent or by heat, either wet steam under pressure at 120° C (250° F) or more for at least 15 minutes, or dry heat at 160° to 180° C (320° to 360° F) for three hours.

Classification and survey of antiseptics and germicides

Alcohols (e.g., ethyl alcohol) 50-70 denaturation of as skin disinfectants;
proteins; interference to form tinctures of
with metabolism; antiseptics (used with
lysis (dissolving of acetone)

Cationic, surface-active 0.1-0.25 denaturation as skin disinfectants
quaternary ammonium of proteins; and antiseptics; in
compounds inactivation of sanitizing eating and
cellular metabolites; drinking utensils,
dissolving of cell wall food-processing

Bisphenols (2 phenols linked 2-5 inhibition of cell growth as surgical scrubs
together) (used with soaps
and detergents); as

Chlorine gas and chloride 0.0000002- liberation of cell in chlorination of water
compounds with available 0.000002 constituents supplies; as food-plant
chlorine sanitizer; in treating
wounds and hospital

Iodine and iodized 2-16 precipitation of cell in ointment and salves
compounds proteins as skin antiseptics;
in surgical-instrument

Aldehydes (e.g., 1-5 general microorganism in disinfection of
formaldehyde) poison dwellings, ships,
storage houses,
utensils, clothing; in

Mercurials (inorganic and 0.001-1 precipitation of cell as skin antiseptic in skin
organic) proteins; destruction ointments and salves;
of enzymes as preservatives for

Oligodynamic metals (silver, traces cell-membrane as disinfectants; in
copper, mercury) destruction; ointments and salves;
coagulation of cell in cement (e.g., in
materials shower rooms)

Heavy metals 0.1-1 precipitation of cell in cosmetics and
proteins deodorants;
antiperspirants; skin

Acids 0.1-5 precipitation of cell as skin antiseptics
proteins; destruction (salicylic benzoic
of cell wall acids); in food
preservatives (benzoic

Dyes (e.g., acridine) 0.1-1 inhibition of cell in dentistry as mucous
function; combination antiseptics; in
with essential laboratory media
metabolites to inhibit growth of
unwanted bacteria

Antibiotics and 0.001-1 interference with in chemotherapy of
chemotherapeutic cell metabolism; disease; in ointment
drugs (e.g., penicillin, synergistic action in and salves as skin
sulfonamides) body to counteract antiseptics

Coal-tar derivatives (e.g., 0.1-5 cytoplasmic poisons; as skin antiseptics
phenol, cresols) disruption of cell in dilute solutions;
wall; precipitation of as floor and wall
proteins; inactivation disinfectants,
of enzymes combined with soaps;
as surgical-instrument

Aromatic oils (especially pine 0.1-5 effect on cell as disinfectants with
oil) constituents; soaps for washing
mechanical effect floors and walls;
inhibits cell growth as a deodorant on
inanimate surfaces



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